Archive for the Charley Chase Category

Charley Chase: The Comedy of Embarrassment

Posted in Charley Chase, Comedians, Comedy, Hollywood (History), Movies, Silent Film with tags , , , , , , , , , , on October 20, 2016 by travsd

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Adapted from my book Chain of Fools: Silent Comedy and Its Legacies from Nickelodeons to Youtube, released by Bear Manor Media, also available from amazon.com etc etc etc

When Charley Chase (born this day in 1893) arrived at the Hal Roach studios to become one the top Hollywood comedians of the 1920s, he already boasted an impressive resume. Chase had begun performing in vaudeville when still a teenager in his native Baltimore, doing Irish monologues, songs and dances. His travels then took him west, and he broke into movies at Universal Studios before moving to Mack Sennett’s Keystone in 1914. You can see the 21 year old (then still billed as Charles Parrott) in films like His New Profession, Fatty’s Suitless Day, and Love, Loot and Crash. Unlike, say, Harold Lloyd who played similar young man roles at Keystone around the same time, Chase makes an impression in his early films. He’s funny and you notice him. He was also in a hurry. The ambitious young man quickly moved up to assistant directing; by 1916 he was already helming his own movies for Sennett. Throughout the late teens and the beginning of the twenties he was building a reputation as a director, working with the likes of Billy West, Lloyd Hamilton and Carter de Haven.

During a hitch at Fox in 1917 he got his younger brother James employment there as an actor. James went to work for Roach before Charley did, joining the company in 1918 to play supporting roles for Harold Lloyd, Hank Mann, and others. By 1922, he was beginning to star in his own shorts under the name Paul Parrott. While James (Paul) was turning out a series of solid comedies, Charley had been hired by the studio in 1921 to direct a series of shorts starring Snub Pollard.  The following he oversaw the creation of the long-running Our Gang series.

In 1923 and 1924, the Parrott Brothers’ roles began to be reversed, with James spending more time behind the camera, and Charley relinquishing his role as Roach’s comedy supervisor to go in front of the camera as a star. And Chase was that: one of the most beloved stars of comedy shorts clear through the 1930s.

Even more than Lloyd (who left Roach in 1924 to star in features) Chase was to personify what the Roach aesthetic was all about. If Mack Sennett’s humor had been all about grotesque clowning, fake mustaches, and battered top hats, the Roach lot brought a new aesthetic of realism. And if Lloyd’s “Boy with the Glasses” had seemed normal compared to those antics, Chase’s character was even more recognizable as a real-life human being, lacking even the bookworm’s horn-rims and mock-heroic climaxes. His comedies have more in common with modern sit-coms than with knockabout or pantomime.

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Sons of the Desert

Granted, he was blessed with good comedy “equipment”. With his ram-rod posture and prissy face he stood out; that’s what had made him memorable even in small Keystone roles. But he also wore a basic business suit and combed his hair in a fashionable cut like a lot of people in his audience. The Twenties were a boom time in America; the new middle class was exploding. Chase represented a different slice of the public than Sennett’s blue collar buffoons. Though he had come from straitened circumstances himself (his father died when he was 16, leaving the family penniless) Chase almost never played farmers, plumbers or fry cooks. His characters tend to be bank clerks, office assistants and middle managers. As such, he generally had a stake in the community. Rather than going around causing trouble, his comedy was about trying to prevent it. In a Charley Chase film life often seems like a stream of unfortunate coincidences designed primarily to embarrass, incriminate, or otherwise inconvenience Chase in his bid to be a good solid citizen. Sometimes he gets humor from trying to put on a brave face and maintain appearances while this happens; other times he makes us laugh by blowing his stack. He was a little uptight; it could go either way — forced cheer or a blowing of the gasket. But what made him interesting was his contradictions. He possessed an unusual mix of grace, polish and awkwardness. Often he seems a “good time Charley”, striving to be the convivial life of the party (indeed that’s what he plays in his best remembered role, the drunken Shriner in Laurel and Hardy’s Sons of the Desert). But only to the extent that such behavior would make him popular around the office.

What Price Goofy? (1925)

What Price Goofy? (1925)

What Price Goofy (1925) is typical of the “embarrassment” formula. Charley’s jealous wife (Katherine Grant) thinks he is cheating. He is most definitely not doing so but keeps coincidentally winding up in compromising positions with other women, being seen with them at just the right (wrong) moment. Forgotten Sweeties (1927) kind of flips that idea. He and his wife move into the same building where his old flame and her new husband now reside. Again, he keeps accidentally winding up in incriminating positions with the old girlfriend (and having to avoid her new husband so he won’t get the hell beat out of him).

Sometimes his compulsion to preserve “normality” seems less forgivable. In His Wooden Wedding (1925) a series of freak coincidences combine to convince him that his fiancé has a wooden leg. In a state of shock, he jilts her at the altar. We dislike him for this at first, but he redeems himself later by getting drunk and suicidal and declaring that she is “the greatest little woman in the world”.

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Mighty Like a Moose (1926) 

Chase is all about appearances. Mighty Like a Moose (1926) is a sort of cross between The Gift of the Magi and Nip and Tuck. Both spouses get their turn to be mortified. Charley is a husband with a hilariously prominent pair of choppers—he looks kind of like Walt Disney’s “Goofy”. His wife (Vivien Oakland) has a nose as big as Lassie’s. Unbeknownst to each other, they each go out and get reconstructive surgery. Whereupon they meet each other and start flirting, not realizing that each is their actual spouse. It’s kind of like a cartoon. So what, if in the real world you have bruises and bandages after rhinoplasty and would most certainly recognize your own spouse whatever minor alterations have been made? Chase’s films are filled with similarly implausible episodes. You just have to go with it. For example, Limousine Love (1928) treats us to the deliciously far-fetched situation of a naked woman stepping into the backseat of Charley’s car to hide out while her clothes are drying. He doesn’t see her back there, and he is on the way to his wedding…

The universe depicted is one in which each next event will always be the thing Charley least wants to happen. The natural extension of that is to create gags that are not only unwelcome to Charley’s character but are so very unexpected they call attention to themselves purely for the entertainment of the audience. Chase’s films are often noted for such moments, which stretch believability past the breaking point and get us laughing at the refreshing audacity of their vision.

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One of the most famous of these is in All Wet (1925), in which his car gets stuck in a mud puddle so deep that Chase has to dive under the water like a frogman to repair the damage. (He would later revive this scene in the 1933 talkie Fallen Arches.) Bromo and Juliet (1926) has the unforgettable scene where he is on his way to his girlfriend’s amateur theatrical dressed as Romeo. His tights are stuffed with sponges to make him look muscular, and he accidentally walks through a field of active lawn sprinklers, making his legs swell up into a pair of lumpy corn dogs. In Fluttering Hearts (1927) he pretends a department store mannequin is his drunken date so he can access to a speakeasy. Later the girl he is wooing shows up and puts on the mannequin’s clothes, and Charley carries her out of the joint instead of the dummy, never noticing that she’s human.

Roach had started Chase off in a series one-reelers wherein he was usually billed as “Jimmy Jump”. A few months into the series, Leo McCarey (who, like Frank Capra had gotten his start with Roach writing gags for Our Gang) began directing many of Chase’s films. They expanded to two-reelers and that’s when the series really began to take off. You can see his distinctive mark in a film like Sittin’ Pretty (1924) which is famous for containing an early version of the “mirror scene” McCarey would later revive for the Marx Brothers’ Duck Soup.

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Chase made out just as well in the sound era as he had in silents, his mellifluous voice suiting his comedy style perfectly. Apart from Modern Love, a half-silent/ half talkie he made for Universal in 1929, he never did properly crack features. But he continued to star in and direct comedy shorts for Roach and Columbia throughout the 1930s. Many made use of his pleasant singing voice and burgeoning songwriting talents. Not only did he star in such minor classics as Southern Exposure (1935) and Teachers Pest (1938), but he also was to direct some of the best films starring The Three Stooges. Sadly, he succumbed to a heart attack in 1940, one year after the drug related death of his brother.

For more on silent and slapstick comedy, see my book Chain of Fools: Silent Comedy and Its Legacies from Nickelodeons to Youtube, released by Bear Manor Media, also available from amazon.com etc etc etc

Charley Chase in “Movie Night”

Posted in Charley Chase, Comedy, Hollywood (History), Movies, Silent Film with tags , , , , , on May 11, 2015 by travsd
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Tiny Sanford as the theatre manager, fixing to expel the troublemaking Chase with extreme prejudice

Today is the anniversary of the release of the Charley Chase comedy short Movie Night (1929). Do the math — this is one of the last silent movies that anyone in America saw at their local cinema (May 11, 1929). Ironic of course — this is one of the most perfectly constructed of all silent comedy shorts, not just one of Chase’s best, but one of THE best. The plot is simple (as the best ones always are): Chase and his family of four have an epic amount of trouble on an ordinary trip to the movies: trouble with tickets, trouble finding seats, trouble with snacks…etc, etc. Chase co-wrote the comedy with the great Leo McCarey. I read recently where someone said something to the effect of “Of COURSE films had to move on to sound at this stage (1929). Silent films had just reached perfection.” The short of those films that demonstrate that silent film had reached perfection.

To learn more about silent and slapstick film please check out my new book: Chain of Fools: Silent Comedy and Its Legacies from Nickelodeons to Youtube, just released by Bear Manor Mediaalso available from amazon.com etc etc etc

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To find out more about  the history of vaudevilleconsult No Applause, Just Throw Money: The Book That Made Vaudeville Famous, available at Amazon, Barnes and Noble, and wherever nutty books are sold.

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Tonight on TCM: Seminal Silent Comedy Shorts

Posted in Charley Chase, Charlie Chaplin, Comedians, Comedy, Fatty Arbuckle, Hollywood (History), Mabel Normand, Movies, Silent Film with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , on May 3, 2015 by travsd

Tonight starting at midnight, Turner Classic Movies will be screening several classic silent movie shorts, some of which are downright pivotal in American comedy history. Just click on links below for more info on each comedian mentioned. Note: they don’t give specific times for each film; shorts are all strange, unpredictable lengths so they just give them all in a block. When I DVR them, I find that the only way is “all or nothing”. But according to TCM, they will be presented in the order below. It’s nice little program, suggesting something about the evolution of the comedy short under Sennett’s watch, and the passing of the torch between comedy stars.

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The Curtain Pole (1909)

The film that started it all. It may be too much to say The Curtain Pole is America’s first film comedy, but it is Mack Sennett’s first film comedy and since he’s the guy who laid the foundation for most of what came later, this is the one that counts. The Curtain Pole was made while Sennett was still at Biograph; Sennett wrote the script and stars in the film and D.W. Griffith directed. At the time, the top comedy films in the U.S. were all coming from France, most of them starring the immortal Max Linder. Here Sennett apes the style of those imported French farces so much as to make it seem a parody. Sennett’s character, M. Dupont (complete with top hat and some very clownish make-up) is helping a woman (Florence Lawrence) hang a curtain when he accidentally breaks the rod. Not to worry, he declares! He goes to town, buys a new one, stops off at the bar and gets wasted, and then rides back in a hansom cab, destroying everything he encounters along the way with his swinging, bad-ass curtain pole. The phallicism of this comic concept is positively Roman. Or maybe we should say Gallicism? This was perhaps the most extreme example of Sennett’s Francophilia in action. It is a similar phenomenon to the Roman comedies of Plautus and Terence having been set in Athens – living in the shadow of the older, better established culture. Later homages would make a more sensible effort to borrow situations and plots from French farces without feeling the need to make the characters actual Frenchmen. But to make sure no one was confused, he would still label most of his films “Farce-Comedies” right in the opening credits both at Biograph and at Keystone.

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On His Wedding Day (1913)

An early one from Sennett’s own comedy shop, Keystone. A cross-eyed bride (Dot Farley) and her family are waiting for a wedding to start. Ford Sterling shows up as the groom. His flowers make everyone sneeze. The girl runs away in consternation. Everyone goes to look for her. The Ford sees a good looking babe with another guy and tries to horn in on the action. Another guy hires bums to beat Ford up and they do. Ford managaes to knock the other guy and a cop down. Everyone chases him. More cops come and chase him. He climbs onto a roof, goes down a chimney — back into the parlor, where the waiting family is ready to start the wedding. The cops follow him into the room, but the bride beats them off.

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Barney Oldfield’s Race for a Life (1913)

A real classic of the genre — it’s what a lot of people think of when they think of silent comedy. A melodrama parody, it features Ford Sterling in top form as a mustache-twirling villain who vies for Mabel Normand’s affections. When she won’t give in, he and his two henchmen tie her to the railroad tracks. Meanwhile her boyfriend the hero, played by Mack Sennett, enlists the help of real life race car driver Barney Oldfield, who races him to the rescue.

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The Speed Kings (1914)

This one reel short stars Ford Sterling, Fatty Arbuckle, Mabel Normand and Barney Oldfield again — as himself. Shot against the backdrop of an actual auto race (a frequent gambit of producer Mack Sennett’s) it tells the tale of Papa Ford Sterling trying to curb Mabel’s infatuation with driver Teddy Tetzlaff. Arbuckle plays a masher.

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The Knockout (1914)

The Knockout is one of the premiere boxing comedies. Today it is usually marketed as a Chaplin film, although it really stars Fatty Arbuckle. Chaplin has a small (but funny) turn as a referee. Fatty is drawn into the boxing world by a bunch of street toughs led by Al St. John who try to humiliate him in front of his girl (Minta Durfee). They haven’t counted on the fact that bricks bounce off of Fatty’s bean, or that he can lift 500 lb weights. He dispatches the punks in short order at the neighborhood gym. (Minta dons male drag so she can enter the gym to watch). Then gangster Mack Swain books Fatty to fight the champ (Edgar Kennedy, who’d actually been a boxer in real life) leading to our main comic set piece. The bout spurs Fatty into a violent rampage. The Keystone Kops are called, leading to a rooftop chase and a fall through a skylight onto a fancy party in the loft below. The Kops throw a rope around Fatty as though he were an elephant they were trying to bring down. He drags them all down to the pier and chucks them in the drink.

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Recreation (1914)

Though amusing in spots, it’s one of Charlie Chaplin‘s less distinctive efforts, being one of several in which he and his cast improvise their comedy in the park. And this is sort of a third string cast, containing none of the other well known Keystone stars we usually delight to see interact with Chaplin: instead of Arbuckle, Normand, Sterling, Kennedy, Conklin, Swain and company….we get Charles Bennett, Edwin Frazee, Edward Nolan and Helen Carruthers. The plot: a tramp, a girl, a sailor, some cops, some fisticuffs — and then everyone falls in the pond. (This happens in about 50% of early Keysone Comedy).

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The Rounders (1914)

The Rounders is significant for being the only honest-to-God co-starring vehicle of Charlie Chaplin and Roscoe “Fatty” Arbuckle, and handily one of Chaplin’s best comedies at Keystone.

The Rounders casts Chaplin and Arbuckle as a couple of drunken lodge brothers out for a night on the town, always one step ahead of their exasperated wives (Phyllis Allen and Minta Durfee). The physical rapport of the two comedians is brilliant – the sight of Arbuckle and Chaplin in evening clothes, arms locked together, stumbling down the street in total synchronization is indelible, as is the image of the enormous Arbuckle dragging the passed-out Chaplin down the sidewalk like a ragdoll. In the end, the two fall asleep in a sinking rowboat. Now that’s drunk. If one didn’t know Chaplin was such an abstemious chap, one might suspect that he are Arbuckle had enjoyed many such sprees together. It’s such a shame they weren’t able to team up like this again.

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Leading Lizzie Astray (1914)

Minta Durfee plays the titular Lizzie, a farmer’s daughter. Roscoe “Fatty Arbuckle” (her real life husband, who also directed) is her sweetheart, a hand on her father’s farm. Into their life rides trouble in the form of a rich city slicker (Ed Brady). He and his chauffeur (Edgar Kennedy) are driving past the farm when they get a flat tire. As Kennedy changes it, the city slicker flirts with the girl. Fatty too becomes occupied with the car, bringing his superhuman strength to bear, lifting the car so the chauffeur can take off the old tire, and blowing up the tire with his own breath. (Fatty exhibited this comical trait in several films. He should have done a lot more of it, it would have helped define his screen character),

Later, Lizzie sneaks away with city the slicker. He brings her to a café, where everything is fast and little bit scary. (Among the patrons at this unruly establishment are Mack Swain,Phyllis Allen, Al St. John, and Charles Parrott, i.e. Charley Chase as a cowboy).  Lizzie doesn’t like it here and wants to leave bar, but the guy wont let her. Meanwhile Fatty, much saddened by Lizzie’s departure has been in pursuit. Recognizing the car parked out front, he enters, beats everyone up, throws several of them through a wayy, and then throws the piano, just for good measure. He is reunited with Lizzie. They kiss.

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Hash House Mashers (1915)

One of the earliest comedies to star Charley Chase (here still billed as Charles Parrott). Here he plays the young lover of Virginia Chester. The pair live in a boarding house, and he’s the only one of the crazy creeps in the house with beau potential. Yet, in order to convince her parents he’s worthy, he must put on a beard for a disguise. And it actually works! Mack Sennett directed this at a time, when his early career as a comedy director was winding down. Withing a few months the demands of running a studio were earing too much of his time to direct many films personally (although he would continue directing as late as 1935).

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Ambrose’s First Falsehood (1914)

Most folks who know Mack Swain at all nowadays know him as Charlie Chaplin’s prospecting partner in The Gold Rush (1925). Fewer know that ten years earlier he’d been a comedy star in his own right, appearing in a series of comedies for Mack Sennett in which he played a character known as “Ambrose”, helping to fill the void left by Chaplin’s recent departure with such frequent co-stars as Chester Conklin. In Ambrose’s First Falsehood , he tells his wife (Minta Durfee) that he is off to San Francisco on business. Cavorting at a bar with pal Charles Parrott (a.k.a. Charley Chase) and his girl (the vivacious Cecile Arnold), he gets into a brouhaha and never makes the train. That’s good news and bad news. The train gets into a wreck and, hearing the news, Mrs. Ambrose is worried sick. Edgar Kennedy plays the barkeep.

For more on silent comedy film history see my new book Chain of Fools: Silent Comedy and Its Legacies from Nickelodeons to Youtube, just released by Bear Manor Media, also available from amazon.com etc etc etc

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For more on show biz historyconsult No Applause, Just Throw Money: The Book That Made Vaudeville Famous, available at Amazon, Barnes and Noble, and wherever nutty books are sold.

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Century of Slapstick #80: Love, Loot and Crash

Posted in Century of Slapstick, Charley Chase, Comedy, Harold Lloyd, Hollywood (History), Movies, Silent Film with tags , , , , , on April 24, 2015 by travsd

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Today marks the 100th anniversary of the release date of the still-popular Keystone comedy short Love, Loot and Crash (1915). People like to check this one out for two reasons. (A) It is one of the first comedies with a prominent role for Charley Chase, who wouldn’t be a proper star until almost a decade later at Hal Roach. And (B) it also features Harold Lloyd in a small role as a fruit vendor; this was during his very brief stint at Keystone.

The plot: a pair or crooks have a plan to rob a house—one of them will go in drag and masquerade as a cook, answering a want ad. The whole thing is ruined when a policeman comes in for his usual graft…some free food and hanging around the kitchen to flirt. The crook panics and throws the cop in the cellar, then flees with his cohort and the daughter of the house who wants to elope. The father chases them down the street. Then the cop grabs a bunch of his fellow Keystone Kops and they pursue, giving us A VERY satisfying comic chase — one of the very best of the early ones. I talk about it a bit in Chain of Fools in the context of cross-cutting.

For more on silent and slapstick comedy please check out my new book: Chain of Fools: Silent Comedy and Its Legacies from Nickelodeons to Youtube, just released by Bear Manor Mediaalso available from amazon.com etc etc etc

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To find out about  the history of vaudevilleconsult No Applause, Just Throw Money: The Book That Made Vaudeville Famous, available at Amazon, Barnes and Noble, and wherever nutty books are sold.

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Mabel Normand and Charlie Chaplin in “Mabel at the Wheel”

Posted in Charley Chase, Charlie Chaplin, Comedians, Comediennes, Comedy, Hollywood (History), Mabel Normand, Movies, Silent Film with tags , , , , , , on April 18, 2015 by travsd

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Today is the anniversary of the release date of the Keystone comedy Mabel at the Wheel, starring Mabel Normand.

There are all sorts of reasons this film is noteworthy.

* This is one of the early films in which Charlie Chaplin does not appear in his famous tramp costume, but in another character he seemed to be developing, the top hatted melodrama character he had played in Making a Living and Cruel, Cruel Love. This character seems like he is literally being asked to fill in for Ford Sterling, who had recently left the studio. That feeling is accentuated in this film by Chaplin’s Sterlingesque chin whiskers

* This is another of those interesting Keystone films we have written about, that were semi-improvised at a live event, in this case an auto race. There were many of those

* This film contains the first known on-camera appearance by Charley Chase (Charles Parrott)

* This is the film on which Chaplin’s tension with his fellow Keystone players boiled to a head. He was having difficulty taking direction from Mabel Normand (the director and star of the picture) and so he sat down and went on strike. He considered Normand a “young girl”, with far less professional experience than he had. Yet she wouldn’t take any of his suggestions. Mack Sennett stepped in and talked him back (rather than firing him, which would have been Mabel’s preferred solution). Sennett did so because he’d recently learned that the comedies in which Chaplin appeared were starting to pull in big box office. Not long after this, Chaplin would begin directing his own pictures. Problem solved.

The plot of the film? A gossamer thing. Motorcycle-riding Charlie and his henchmen compete for Mabel’s affections with race car driving Harry McCoy. When they tie up Harry to keep him out of the race, Mabel takes his place at the wheel. Despite Chaplin’s dirty tricks (including a spectacular stunt involving an oil slick) Mabel wins the race anyway. Chester Conklin appears in the film as Mabel’s father. Mack Sennett plays a newsreel reporter. Now through the following year, appearances by Sennett in his own films grew increasingly rare and small.

For more on silent and slapstick comedy please check out my new book: Chain of Fools: Silent Comedy and Its Legacies from Nickelodeons to Youtube, just released by Bear Manor Mediaalso available from amazon.com etc etc etc

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To find out about  the history of vaudevilleconsult No Applause, Just Throw Money: The Book That Made Vaudeville Famous, available at Amazon, Barnes and Noble, and wherever nutty books are sold.

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Charley Chase in “His Wooden Wedding”

Posted in Charley Chase, Comedy, Hollywood (History), Movies, Silent Film with tags , , , , , on December 20, 2014 by travsd

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Today is the anniversary of the release date of the Charley Chase short His Wooden Wedding (1925), directed by Leo McCarey.

In this hilarious silent short, Chase plays a young man who’s about to get married. Unfortunately (for his own good) he’s a bit shallow. So when his rival for the girl’s hand informs him that she has a wooden leg, he has last minute second thoughts. Misleading evidence seems to corroborate the rival’s story. She has a limp. Charley tries to feel her leg under the table and accidentally feels a man’s cane. So he backs out at the last minute. He decides to take a cruise to leave his worries behind, with many more hijinx on the ship, including a great turn by Gale Henry. Meanwhile (as only happens in movies), his fiance (Kathryn Grant) and her father catch up to the ship in their yacht to try to put things right. Charley is contrite. They throw the rival in the drink.

For more on silent and slapstick comedy please see my new book Chain of Fools: Silent Comedy and Its Legacies from Nickelodeons to Youtube, just released by Bear Manor Media, also available from amazon.com etc etc etc

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To find out more about show business past and presentconsult No Applause, Just Throw Money: The Book That Made Vaudeville Famousavailable at Amazon, Barnes and Noble, and wherever nutty books are sold.

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Charley Chase in “All Wet”

Posted in Charley Chase, Comedy, Hollywood (History), Movies, Silent Film with tags , , , on November 23, 2014 by travsd

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Today is the anniversary of the release date of the one reel Charley Chase comedy All Wet (1924), directed by Leo McCarey. This is one of the series of Hal Roach comedies in which Chase portrays a character named “Jimmy Jump”. Jimmy gets a telegram about a litter of pups which he needs to go retrieve. The entirety of the film is about his struggles to get to the train station.  The film’s memorable (indeed, notorious) set piece occurs when he stops his car in order to tow someone who’s stuck in the mud, does so and then gets stuck in the mud himself. Then he gets someone to push him out of the mire; the push sends his car into a water puddle at least six feet deep. A tow truck pulls the axle off his car. And then Charley dives into the water to retrieve the car, precipitating many underwater scenes, as though he were at the bottom of the sea. Chase later revived this sequence for his better known talking short Fallen Arches (1933).

For more on comedy film history see my new book Chain of Fools: Silent Comedy and Its Legacies from Nickelodeons to Youtube, just released by Bear Manor Media, also available from amazon.com etc etc etcchain%20of%20fools%20cvr%20front%20only-500x500For more on show biz historyconsult No Applause, Just Throw Money: The Book That Made Vaudeville Famous, available at Amazon, Barnes and Noble, and wherever nutty books are sold.

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